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In addition thousands more subscribed to the numerous weekly papers and the many magazines.
Some have argued that the Holocaust provided Jews with a rationale for their ethnic distinction at a time when other minorities were asserting their own.
In New York City, while the German Jewish community was well established 'uptown', the more numerous Jews who migrated from Eastern Europe faced tension 'downtown' with Irish and German Catholic neighbors, especially the Irish Catholics who controlled Democratic Party Politics at the time.
Some stories show how a family member successfully negotiated the conflict between ethnic and American identities.
After 1960, memories of the Holocaust, together with the Six Day War in 1967 had major impacts on fashioning Jewish ethnic identity.
The key to understanding this transition from a racial self-definition to a cultural or ethnic one can be found in the Menorah Journal between 19.